Σάββατο, 25 Ιανουαρίου 2014

Οι δέκα σημαντικότεροι διανοούμενοι Πολιτικής Θεολογίας

Πηγή:Political Theology Today
Ισως ο πιο σημαντικός διανοούμενος για τα θέματα Πολιτικής Θεολογίας, ο Roland Boer
(Stalin's Moustache εδώ) παρουσιάζει τους 10 πιο σημαντικούς φιλόσοφους Πολιτικούς Θεολογίας τα τελευταία εκατό χρόνια.
Η λίστα είναι γεμάτη εκπλήξεις , ερέθισμα για έρευνα (πχ : Μα  ποιοι είναι οι W. T. Wu (1893-1979), Hussein Mroué (1907-87) and Tan Malaka (1997-1949) ;)

Το άρθρο εδώ

From the editor: Earlier this month, Ted A. Smith of Emory University posted a wonderfully useful “Political Theology Start-up Kit” at the Religion in American History blog, summarizing what he thought were some of the key texts in the field over the past 100 years. In response, I have invited a range of editors and contributors to Political Theology and Political Theology Today to offer their own “Top 10 lists” over the next several weeks, based on their diverse approaches to and experiences within the field. Our third contribution, from Dr. Roland Boer, takes some liberties with the “100 years” boundary, but offers a unique and provocative perspective on this question.

I would like to change direction a little in this reflection on one hundred years of political theology. My interest for some time has been the complex intersections – or translations – that take place between Marxism and religion. I find unpersuasive the assertion that Marxism is a secularised or pseudo-religion, a political movement that relies upon a religious framework in order to develop its positions. This is to fall into the double-trap of a secularisation narrative and making theology an absolute and thereby the source of all modern political thought. Instead, I work with a model of translation between Marxism and theology. Here is no absolute position that determines the other, for both languages are limited affairs, able to say some things better and others less so. Their semantic fields overlap but not entirely, a situation that ideally expands and enriches the terms that intersect. However, it also risks that something may be lost in the process of translation, some sense that is left out of the discussion. At the same time, the terms in question resist the process of translation, insisting on their own specific meanings. The result is a constant dialectical process of moving back and forth between the terms under negotiation, a creative process in which insight may be generated.
In that light, who are my top ten thinkers of political theology?

1. Friedrich Engels. Often seen as Marx’s lieutenant, of lesser capabilities than his close friend and comrade, Engels was actually a better writer and produced some of the core ideas that Marx developed. He also elaborated his own proposals beyond Marx. An example is the idea that a religion like Christianity is deeply ambivalent in its politics. It can be thoroughly reactionary, supporting whatever brutal regime happens to be in power, or it can be deeply revolutionary. Although Engels lost his strong Reformed faith in his twenties, he maintained an avid interest in theology until his death in 1895. So he was the first to offer an interpretation of the Peasant Revolution of 1525, led by Thomas Müntzer. And just before he died, he made the famous argument that Christianity was originally a revolutionary movement.

2. Karl Kautsky (1854-1938) would carry on Engels’s project in extraordinary detail. While his Foundations of Christianity (1908) provided the first book-length study of Christianity from a Marxist perspective, his multi-volume Forerunners of Modern Socialism (1895-97, 1922) is far more important. This work really establishes a tradition of revolutionary Christianity, tracing the myriad revolutionary movements inspired by Christian thought and practice. Most of his attention focuses on the Middle Ages and the Reformation, but he includes almost 2000 years of such movements. This work had profoundly influenced me, although it remains only partially translated into English and under-appreciated.

3. Anatoly Lunacharsky (1875-1933) is without a doubt the most neglected of all those in my list. A Bolshevik to the left of Lenin and the first Commissar for Enlightenment in the new Russia after 1917, Lunacharsky was the leader of a movement known as ‘God-Building’. His magisterial two-volume work, Religion and Socialism (1908 and 1911), has been translated from Russian only into Yiddish. In this work, he engages closely with the most significant points theological thought and offers a careful rereading of the Bible. Apart from his poetic sensibilities, and his basing the USSR’s education system on ‘God-building’, Lunacharsky’s main contributions include: a) a desire to recover the emotional and enthusiastic side of Marxism by means of an engagement with religion; b) deploying the model of the gods as ideals of human striving – hence ‘God-building’ and what he called the ‘religion of labour’; c) the role of the revolution in that process of God-building; d) a profound exploration of Engels’s insight into the political ambivalence of Christianity.

4. In many ways, Lunacharsky anticipates the insights of Ernst Bloch (1885-1977). One of Bloch’s great inspirations was the Bible itself, which he read and knew intimately. Among many features of Bloch’s thought, perhaps the most significant is his discernment of (biblical) myth. He was not one to throw out myth in the name of enlightenment, for myth contains revolutionary insights. However, we require the subtle ability to discern those insights in the midst of the reactionary nature of so much myth.

5. Theodor Adorno (1903-69) also wrote on theology, especially his habilitationschrift on Kierkegaard (1933), completed under the direction of Paul Tillich. This is a thorough exercise in theological suspicion, but I am also taken with Adorno’s criticisms of liberal theology, the dangers of secularised theology (he has Heidegger and Jaspers in mind), and his extraordinary deployment of the ban on images from the Decalogue so that it became a leitmotiv of his negative dialectics.

6. Adorno’s collaborator, Max Horkheimer (1895-1973) requested a slightly altered quotation from Psalm 91 on his tombstone: ‘Because you, eternal one, are my confidence’. Horkheimer was even keener than Adorno in recovering elements from the theological tradition for the development of Marxist thought. The most noteworthy include the tension between authenticity of resistance (whether theistic or atheistic) and the betrayal of compromise with the state, the human desire of a ‘longing for the totally other’ (which reflects discussions with Tillich), and the search for an ‘honest religion’.

7. Louis Althusser (1918-90) may be another surprising addition to this list. Yet he began in the Roman Catholic Left before joining the French Communist Party and wrote a number of early theological essays. Some of these ideas would filter through into his most famous Marxist writings – especially his theory of ideology as the constitution of the subject in relation the (big S) Subject – so that he provides some of the groundwork for a philosophy of the practical ideology of religion.

8. Dick Boer is no relation of mine, but a communist theologian living in Amsterdam. A comrade of Ton Veerkamp, Dick Boer was a minister in East Germany from 1984-90 – in the Dutch Ecumenical Congregation in the GDR. Here he engaged with major political figures and Marxist thinkers, and first proposed the manifesto that led to the ‘For Our Country’ mass movement. It was a movement that sought to renew the socialist project in East Germany in the late 1980s. In light of his experience of preaching in a socialist country, where the problem was not the revolution itself but dealing with problems after the revolution, Dick Boer wrote his work of biblical theology, Redemption from Slavery: Biblical Theology in the Service of Liberation (Verlossing uit de Slavernij: Bijbelse Theologie in Dienst van Bevrijding, 2009). It is being translated into English as I write.

9. W. T. Wu (1893-1979) is my Chinese representative. Wu was one of a number of original Chinese theologians in the first half of the twentieth century who explored the intersections between Marxism and Christianity. He sought to develop a ‘materialist Christianity’ based on the Sermon on the Mount, but his lifelong agenda was to temper the excesses of both Christian theology (especially its absolutism) and Marxism (its relativism) by a constant process of translation between the two.

10. Hussein Mroué (1907-87) and Tan Malaka (1997-1949). I have yet to read the works by either, a Lebanese and an Indonesian, but they both sought the ways Marxism and Islam are interwoven with one another. Mroué was a sheikh trained in Karbala, Iraq, who became a Marxist and joined the Lebanese Communist Party. He was working on the third volume of his Materialist Tendencies in Islamic Philosophy when he was assassinated. Malaka is an Indonesian hero, for he was a leader of the resistance movement against Dutch colonial control. In Madilog (Materialisme-Dialektika-Logika 1943) he explores the way Marxism and Islam are compatible: while the latter needs to lose its mystical bent and learn from dialectical materialism, the former needs to see that Islam may well provide the basis for uniting the working classes against capitalism in the Muslim-majority countries across Asia, Africa and the Middle East.

Πέμπτη, 16 Ιανουαρίου 2014

G.Agamben.Κρίση, Ενοχή, Μεσσίας

Μετάφραση: Δημήτρης ΚοσμίδηςΠηγή: Angelusnovus

H τιμωρία για όσους απομακρύνονται από την αγάπη είναι να παραδοθούν στην εξουσία της Κρίσεως: πρέπει να κρίνουν ο ένας τον άλλο.

Aυτό είναι το νόημα της κατίσχυσης του δικαίου στην εποχή μας: όλες οι άλλες εξουσίες, θρησκευτικές και ηθικές, έχουν χάσει την ισχύ τους και δεν επιβιώνουν παρά μόνο ως μείωση ή αναστολή της ποινής και σε καμία περίπτωση ως διακοπή ή άρνηση της κρίσεως. Έτσι, τίποτε δεν είναι πιο καταθλιπτικό από αυτή την άνευ όρων ισχύ των δικαιικών κατηγοριών σε έναν κόσμο όπου αυτές δεν απηχούν κανένα κατανοητό ηθικό περιεχόμενο: η ισχύς τους είναι πράγματι χωρίς νόημα, όσο ανεξιχνίαστη είναι στην παραβολή του Κάφκα η έκφραση στο πρόσωπο του φρουρού του νόμου.

Αυτή η απώλεια νοήματος, η οποία μετατρέπει και την επαρκέστερα αιτιολογημένη καταδικαστική απόφαση σε μια απαλλαγή λόγω αμφιβολιών (non liquet), έρχεται εκτυφλωτικά στο φως με τις ομολογίες του Μπετίνο Kράξι και των ισχυρών που μας κυβερνούσαν μέχρι χθες, τη στιγμή που πρέπει να παραδώσουν τη σκυτάλη σε άλλους, πιθανόν όχι καλύτερους από τους ίδιους. Διότι, εδώ, το να αναγνωρίσεις την ενοχή σου συνιστά αμέσως μια καθολική επίκληση της συνενοχής του καθενός απέναντι σε όλους τους άλλους, κι εκεί όπου όλοι είναι ένοχοι η κρίση είναι τεχνικά αδύνατη. (Ακόμη και ο Κύριος την Ημέρα της Κρίσεως θα απέφευγε να βγάλει απόφαση αν είχε να κάνει μόνο με καταδικασμένους). Εκεί, ο νόμος θα αποσυρόταν στην αρχέγονη προσταγή η οποία, σύμφωνα με την πρόθεση του Απόστολου Παύλου, εκφράζει την εσωτερική του αντίφαση: Ἔνοχος ἔσται!

Τίποτε δεν φανερώνει καλύτερα την οριστική έκπτωση της χριστιανικής ηθικής της αγάπης ως δύναμης που ενώνει τα ανθρώπινα όντα, από αυτή την πρωτοκαθεδρία του δικαίου. Αλλά έτσι προδίδεται και η άνευ όρων εγκατάλειψη κάθε μεσσιανικής πρόθεσης εκ μέρους της Εκκλησίας του Χριστού. Και τούτο διότι ο Μεσσίας είναι η μορφή μέσα από την οποία η θρησκεία έρχεται αντιμέτωπη με το πρόβλημα του νόμου, μέσα από την οποία θρησκεία και νόμος έρχονται σε τελική αναμέτρηση και λύνουν οριστικά τους λογαριασμούς τους. Στην πραγματικότητα, τόσο στον ιουδαϊσμό όσο και στον χριστιανισμό και το σιιτικό Ισλάμ, το μεσσιανικό συμβάν σηματοδοτεί πρωτίστως μια κρίση και μια ριζική μεταμόρφωση στην ίδια τη νομική τάξη της θρησκευτικής παράδοσης. Ο παλαιός νόμος (η Τορά της Δημιουργίας), που ήταν σε ισχύ έως τότε, παύει να είναι σε ισχύ· όμως, προφανώς, το ζήτημα εδώ δεν είναι να υποκατασταθεί ο παλαιός νόμος με έναν νέο, που θα περιλαμβάνει διαφορετικές, αλλά δομικά ομοιογενείς, εντολές και απαγορεύσεις με τις προηγούμενες. Εξ ου και τα παράδοξα του μεσσιανισμού, τα οποία εξέφρασε ο Σαμπετάι Σεβή με τη ρήση του «Η εκπλήρωση της Τορά είναι η παραβίασή της» ή ο Χριστός (πιο συγκρατημένα από τον Απόστολο Παύλο) με τη διατύπωση «οὐκ ἦλθον καταλῦσαι ἀλλὰ πληρῶσαι [τὸν νόμον]».

Έχοντας καταλήξει σ΄ έναν διαρκή συμβιβασμό με το νόμο, η εκκλησία πάγωσε το μεσσιανικό συμβάν, παραδίδοντας έτσι τον κόσμο στην εξουσία της κρίσεως, την οποία, ωστόσο, η ίδια διαχειρίζεται πονηρά μέσω της άφεσης αμαρτιών, με συγχωροχάρτια, εξομολογήσεις και μετάνοιες. (Ο Μεσσίας δεν έχει ανάγκη από μια τέτοια άφεση: το «ἄφες ἡμῖν τά ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καί ἡμεῖς ἀφίεμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν» δεν είναι τίποτε άλλο παρά η προαναγγελία της μεσσιανικής εκπλήρωσης του νόμου). Το καθήκον το οποίο έχει αναθέσει ο μεσσιανισμός στη μοντέρνα πολιτική –να στοχαστούμε μια ανθρώπινη κοινότητα που δεν θα έχει (μόνο) τη μορφή του νόμου– εξακολουθεί να περιμένει τα μυαλά εκείνων που θα μπορούσαν να το αναλάβουν.

Giorgio Agamben [1996], "Σ’ αυτή την εξορία. Ιταλικό ημερολόγιο 1992-1994" [απόσπασμα], στο Μέσα χωρίς σκοπούς. Σημειώσεις πάνω στην πολιτική [Mezzi senza fine, Bollati Boringhieri editori].

Τετάρτη, 8 Ιανουαρίου 2014

Ελεύθερη 'εκδοση του "The Bible and Critical Theory"

 

'Ενα από τα πιο ενδιαφέροντα περιοδικά Πολιτικής Θεολογίας είναι το "The Bible and Critical Theory"

H τελευταία έκδοση είναι πλήρως ελεύθερη

Πηγή: Stalin's Moustache εδώ

 

ARTICLES

Revelations of the DreamPDF
George Aichele, Tina Pippin, Richard Walsh
Probing the Homelessness of Jesus with Žižek’s Sublime ObjectPDF
Robert J. Myles
A Serious ManPDF
Timothy Stanley
We Are Family: Deuteronomy 14 and the Boundaries of an Israelite IdentityPDF
Dermot Nestor
God’s Visions and God’s Eyes in Ezekiel’s Surrealistic ImageryPDF
Edgar W. Conrad
A Big Room for Poo: Eddie Izzard’s Bible and the Literacy of LaughterPDF
Christopher Meredith
Barth, Žižek & the Cold War: Defending Radical Politics against the Totalitarian ConceptPDF
Michael Jimenez

BOOK REVIEWS

Review of Paul de Man, The Post-Romantic Predicament. Ed. Martin McQuillan. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2012.PDF
George Aichele
Review of Pheme Perkins, Reading the New Testament: An Introduction. 3rd ed. New York: Paulist Press, 2012.PDF
Nathan Barnes
Review of Alison Jack, The Bible and Literature. London: SCM Press, 2012.PDF
Caroline Blyth
Review of Ronald L. Troxel, Prophetic Literature: From Oracles to Books. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.PDF
Caroline Blyth
Review of Philippe Guillaume, Land, Credit and Crisis: Agrarian Finance in the Hebrew Bible. BibleWorld. Shef-field: Equinox Publishing, 2012.PDF
Roland Boer
Review of Philippe Guillaume, Land, Credit and Crisis: Agrarian Finance in the Hebrew Bible. BibleWorld. Shef-field: Equinox Publishing, 2012.PDF
Mark Brett
Review of David M. Halperin & Valerie Traub, eds., Gay Shame. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2009.PDF
Philip Culbertson
Review of Dennis J. Horton, Death and Resurrection: The Shape and Function of a Literary Motif in the Book of Acts. Cambridge: James Clarke and Co., 2009.PDF
Scott S. Elliott
Review of James G. Crossley, Jesus in an Age of Neo-liberalism. BibleWorld; Sheffield: Equinox Publishing, 2012.PDF
Hans Leander
Review of Christina Petterson, Acts of Empire: The Acts of the Apostles and Imperial Ideology. Sino-Christian Studies Supplement Series 4. Chung Li: Chung Yuan Christian University, 2012.PDF
Robert J. Myles
Review of Hector Avalos, Slavery, Abolitionism, and the Ethics of Biblical Scholarship. The Bible in the Modern World 38. Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix, 2011.PDF
Robert Seesengood
Review of Stanislas Breton, A Radical Philosophy of Saint Paul. Trans. J. N. Ballan; introduction by W. Blanton; Insurrections: Critical Studies in Religion, Politics, and Culture; New York: Columbia University Press, 2011PDF
Robert Seesengood
Review of James E. Harding, The Love of David and Jonathan: Ideology, Text, Reception. Sheffield: Equinox, 2013.PDF
Susan Ackerman
Review of Marianne Bielland Kartzow, Destablizing the Margins: An Intersectional Approach to Early Christian Memory. Pickwick: Eugene, 2012.PDF
Nathan Barnes
Review of Mark Boda, Carol J. Dempsey, and LeAnn Snow Flesher (eds), Daughter Zion: Her Portrait, Her Response. Atlanta: SBL, 2012.PDF
Miriam Bier
Review of Roland Boer, Criticism of Heaven: Marxism and Theology. Historical Materialism Book Series, 18. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2007; Criticism of Religion: On Marxism and Theology, II. Historical Materialism Book Series, 22. Leiden and Boston: Brill,PDF
Deane Galbraith
Review of Roland Boer, Nick Cave: A Study of Love, Death and Apocalypse. Sheffield: Equinox, 2012.PDF
Yael Klangwisan
Review of Hélène Cixous, (eds) Marta Segarra and Joana Masó, Poetry in Painting: Writings on Contemporary Arts and Aesthetics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2012.PDF
Francis Landy
Review of Julia Kristeva, The Severed Head: Capital Visions. Columbia University Press: New York, 2012.PDF
Christopher Meredith
Review of Adam Stewart, ed. Handbook of Pentecostal Christianity. DeKalb, Illinois: Northern Illinois University Press, 2012.PDF
Stephen Waldron
Review of Anthony C. Swindell, Reworking the Bible: The Literary Reception of Fourteen Biblical Stories. Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix, 2010.PDF
Richard Walsh